When referring to these concepts, we think it's best illustrated with an example of a fire hydrant. Identify a fire hydrant and take the static pressure, or find out how fast it's shooting out water. When opening an adjacent hydrant, we take the static pressure again at the 1st hydrant, and find it's decreased. That is your residual pressure.
From NFPA 13: " The proper method of conducting this test is to use two hydrants in the vicinity of the property. The static pressure should be measured on the hydrant in front of or nearest to the property and the water allowed to flow from the hydrant next nearest the property, preferably the one farthest from the source of supply if the main is fed only one way. The residual pressure will be that indicated at the hydrant where water is not flowing."
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